Types of Cryptography Techniques

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the technique of protecting your information, by converting or encrypting the message into a secure format. Basically in cryptography, you convert plain text into Ciphertext. The ciphertext is plain text encrypted into a secure format using an encryption algorithm. The ciphertext is then converted into plain text using decryption.
Cryptography is the method of transmitting data into a secure format so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. 

Types of Cryptography

Generally, there are 3 main types of Cryptography techniques:

Symmetric Key Cryptography

  Symmetric key cryptography is any cryptographic algorithm where the sender and receiver of a message use a single shared key to encrypt and decrypt messages. Symmetric key cryptography techniques are faster and simpler. Symmetric cryptography techniques are designed precisely for the efficient processing of large volumes of data.
The most popular symmetric-key cryptography systems are the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES is the most widely used algorithm and is considered strong enough to protect military top-secret data. 

Asymmetric Key Cryptography

 Asymmetric key cryptography is any cryptographic algorithm where encryption and decryption are done using two different cryptographic keys also known as the public key and private key. In an asymmetric key system, the public key is used for encryption while the private key is used for decryption at the authenticated receiver’s end.
RSA(Rivest Shamir Adleman) and Diffie Hellman are the most widely used asymmetric key cryptographic systems. SSL uses the RSA algorithm for digital signatures and establishes a secure HTTPS connection. 

Hash Functions

In hash functions, there is no usage of any key. The hashing produces a unique, fixed string length also called hash codes, hash values, or a message digest. A hash value of fixed length is produced by applying a hash function on the plain text which makes it impossible for contents of plain text to be recovered. The hash value obtained can be stored instead of a password for later validating the user.

Features of Cryptography


Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a person or a device. A very common example of authentication is that when you log in to a website, you have to enter the username and password of your account, this is for verifying that if you are an authenticated user or not.


Confidentiality prevents unauthorized access to information, ensuring that only the authorized person can access the information.


Non-repudiation is the assurance that the sender of the message cannot later deny his or her intention of sending information. 

Data Integrity 

Integrity means that the information is protected from unauthorized viewing or access, and is accurate and complete.

FAQs on Cryptography

What is secret-key cryptography?
  • Secret key cryptography (aka Symmetric key cryptography) refers to a cryptographic system in which the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.
What is public-key cryptography?
  • Public key or asymmetric key cryptography refers to a cryptographic system in which different keys are used for encrypting and decrypting data. Data is encrypted using the public key by the sender and is decrypted by the receiver using a private key.
Which is more secure AES or DES?
  • AES is more secure than DES as the key length in AES is of various lengths (128 or 192 or 256 bits) making it exponentially stronger, while in DES the effective key length is 56 bits.
What is end-to-end encryption?
  • End-to-end encryption is the system of communication where only the sender and receiver can read the messages and no other third party can intercept.

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